One-carbon metabolism nutrients impact the interplay between DNA methylation and gene expression in liver, enhancing protein synthesis in Atlantic salmon

Skretting water


Supplementation of one-carbon (1C) metabolism micronutrients, which include B-vitamins and methionine, is essential for the healthy growth and development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). However, the recent shift towards non-fish meal diets in salmon aquaculture has led to the need for reassessments of recommended micronutrient levels. Despite the importance of 1C metabolism in growth performance and various cellular regulations, the molecular mechanisms affected by these dietary alterations are less understood. To investigate the molecular effect of 1C nutrients, we analysed gene expression and DNA methylation using two types of omics data: RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and reduced-representation bisulphite sequencing (RRBS). We collected liver samples at the end of a feeding trial that lasted 220 days through the smoltification stage, where fish were fed three different levels of four key 1C nutrients: methionine, vitamin B6, B9, and B12. Our results indicate that the dosage of 1C nutrients significantly impacts genetic and epigenetic regulations in the liver of Atlantic salmon, particularly in biological pathways related to protein synthesis. The interplay between DNA methylation and gene expression in these pathways may play an important role in the mechanisms underlying growth performance affected by 1C metabolism.