Impact of Hydroxytyrosol-Rich Extract Supplementation in a High-Fat Diet on Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Lipid Metabolism

Skretting water
Antioxidants 13(4):403, 01 mars 2024
S. B. Pecino, M. Montblanch, E. Rosell-Moll, V. González-Fernández, I. García-Meilán, R. Fontanillas, Á. Gallardo, J. Gutierrez, E. Capilla, I. N


High-fat diets (HFDs) enhance fish growth by optimizing nutrient utilization (i.e., protein-sparing effect); however, their potential negative effects have also encouraged the search for feed additives. This work has investigated the effects of an extract rich in a polyphenolic antioxidant, hydroxytyrosol (HT), supplemented (0.52 g HT/kg feed) in a HFD (24% lipid) in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Fish received the diet at two ration levels, standard (3% of total fish weight) or restricted (40% reduction) for 8 weeks. Animals fed the supplemented diet at a standard ration had the lowest levels of plasma free fatty acids (4.28 ± 0.23 mg/dL versus 6.42 ± 0.47 in the non-supplemented group) and downregulated hepatic mRNA levels of lipid metabolism markers (ppara, pparb, lpl, fatp1, fabp1, acox1, lipe and lipa), supporting potential fat-lowering properties of this compound in the liver. Moreover, the same animals showed increased muscle lipid content and peroxidation (1.58- and 1.22-fold, respectively, compared to the fish without HT), suggesting the modulation of body adiposity distribution and an enhanced lipid oxidation rate in that tissue. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering this phytocompound as an optimal additive in HFDs for gilthead sea bream to improve overall fish health and condition.